Category Archives: Nashville History

KICKSTARTER REWARD TIER 25.00—Stump the Train Wreck Lady!!

I say that when it comes to Nashville history there is always a Dutchman’s Curve train wreck connection. Challenge me. Choose an event from Nashville’s past–up to 1918 and I will try to connect it to the train wreck. Your challenge and my response will be preserved in a permanent album on the book’s Facebook page. See if you can stump the Train Wreck Lady!

I received my first challenge today—even though my Kickstarter campaign hasn’t officially launched yet.

Is there a connection between Dutchman’s Curve and the Trail of Tears?

The Trail of Tears—the forced exile march of the Cherokee people—from Tennessee to Oklahoma was authorized by President Andrew Jackson.   Davy Crockett opposed the policy.  Both men made visits to the Belle Meade Plantation from Nashville.  Harding Road—the road from Nashville to the plantation—crosses Richland Creek near the place known as Dutchman’s Curve. Traveling that road both Andrew Jackson and Davy Crockett passed by the spot where the train wreck would later occur.

The Trail of tears and Dutchman’s Curve are tied together by the close association Andrew Jackson and Davy Crockett had with policies that lead to the forced removal  of the Cherokee people and  the proximity of their visits to Belle Meade.

It wasn’t an easy question to answer but I connected The Trail of Tears to Dutchman’s Curve.

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My friend David Ewing is a superb researcher and talented writer. I admire his ability to bring various and seemingly unrelated historical facts together, offering readers insight based on his unique perspective of his subject. The following article written by David was published in yesterday’s Sunday edition of the Tennessean.
We appreciate you David!

When James Robert­son and John Donel­son trav­eled to Mid­dle Ten­nessee and founded what is today Nashville in 1779, they selected a choice spot on the bend of the Cum­ber­land for their new set­tle­ment. The first com­mer­cial and res­i­den­tial build­ings of Nashville were built in the area of the long, pow­er­ful river.

Before this month, Nashville saw nine other major floods since the days of Robert­son and Donel­son, when the Cum­ber­land reached more than 52 feet or higher. The great­est started on Christ­mas Day 1926. That week, Nashville had 8.39 inches of rain, with another 2 inches in the few days after Christ­mas. The rain pushed the Cum­ber­land River to 56.2 feet — the high­est on record — which is 4 feet over the crest of the Cum­ber­land this month.

In 1926 older cit­i­zens still remem­bered the last time Nashville had a big flood, in Jan­u­ary 1882. This flood brought great human suf­fer­ing to the river city, which was still scarred from the Civil War.

By David Ewing

In the 1880s Nashville was a mill and man­u­fac­tur­ing town, and many of these busi­nesses were on the east bank of the Cum­ber­land River, on First and Sec­ond avenues off of Broad­way and in the Sul­phur Dell area, which is where Bicen­ten­nial Mall now stands. The 1882 flood caused almost 30 homes to float down the river, and even more were top­pled. Wood and logs by the thou­sands floated away from lum­ber­yards, and one of the city’s largest employ­ers, Ten­nessee Iron Works, was almost com­pletely sub­merged. Hun­dreds of peo­ple were cast out of work and had no money, food or place to live.

As the water rose and dis­placed peo­ple and busi­nesses, then as now, cit­i­zens were uni­fied in help­ing those in need. The Daily Amer­i­can news­pa­per said it was “one proud reflec­tion about the flood is that the human­ity of Nashville rises with the tide of mis­for­tune and the brisk ener­gies of our towns­men in the work of relief sec­onded by the active and sub­stan­tial aid of all classes of the community.”

The Women’s Relief Fund imme­di­ately started to raise money for vic­tims and make sure they had proper shel­ter, food and clothes. Shel­ters were estab­lished and food and funds were quickly dis­trib­uted. One man who was one of 500 peo­ple wait­ing in line for assis­tance said he had “five mouths to feed and not a bite in the house.” The trea­surer of The Women’s Relief Fund, Fan­nie Bat­tle, acknowl­edged the efforts of every­one that donated but pleaded with cit­i­zens to con­tinue to give toward the effort, and money con­tin­ued to pour in from local busi­nesses, churches and citizens.

10,000 peo­ple displaced

Dur­ing the 1926 flood, water made its way to build­ings on Fifth Avenue down­town. First and Sec­ond avenues were hit hard­est, and water almost reached the sec­ond floor of many build­ings. The Amer­i­can Stream and Feed Build­ing on Sec­ond Avenue col­lapsed after the water rose, and its owner, for­mer Nashville Mayor William Gup­ton, esti­mated he lost $50,000 in the value of the build­ing and another $20,000 in stock that was inside. When the build­ing col­lapsed, hun­dreds of bags of feed and seed floated down Sec­ond Avenue. At another nearby build­ing, Reeves & Com­pany Pro­duce, the water caused all of the chick­ens to drown, but the ducks escaped and were seen swim­ming away down the street.

Most mer­chants did not carry flood insur­ance. A lead­ing Nashville mer­chant, Robert Orr, said at the time, “So far as I know, not a penny of flood insur­ance is car­ried here.”

Nashville Mayor Hilary Howse, who pre­vi­ously had oper­ated a fur­ni­ture store on Lower Broad­way that was also flooded, ordered all city trucks to be under the direc­tion of the police chief. City work­ers were sent to res­cue those stranded and to notify peo­ple of the ris­ing water and tell them to imme­di­ately leave their homes.

The 1926 flood drove almost 10,000 peo­ple from their homes, mainly in the East Nashville and Jef­fer­son Street areas. The Nashville Real Estate Board quickly pro­vided a list of vacant homes where peo­ple could stay. The areas hard­est hit by the 2010 flood — Belle­vue, Bor­deaux, Anti­och and Donel­son — were not heav­ily pop­u­lated in 1926 and were mainly farmland.

WLAC which had just started broad­cast­ing in Nashville the month before the 1926 flood, imme­di­ately sus­pended reg­u­lar pro­gram­ming to alert Nashvil­lians of the ris­ing waters. When con­di­tions started to worsen and peo­ple had to leave their homes, the sta­tion asked for help and money.

Fifty indi­vid­u­als and busi­nesses offered vacant rooms or homes and $50,000 was quickly raised due to the non­stop efforts of the radio station.

Blues singer Bessie Smith, a Ten­nessee native, wrote a song called “Back­wa­ter Blues” that was recorded Feb. 17, 1927, just six weeks after the flood. It became a huge hit when other parts of the South flooded later that year.

Mayor Howse had a quick response to the flood. Even though 10,000 peo­ple were dis­placed out of a pop­u­la­tion of about 150,000, the news­pa­pers reported that there was no loss of life. The Nashville Ban­ner edi­to­ri­al­ized that “the peo­ple of Nashville will respond speed­ily and gen­er­ously” and “that Nashville always takes care of its own.”

Nashville’s local sup­port of the flood vic­tims was so over­whelm­ing that Howse turned down fed­eral finan­cial sup­port offered from Wash­ing­ton and from the national Red Cross.

Every­one wants to com­pare this recent flood to pre­vi­ous ones in Nashville. Clearly the $1.56 bil­lion in dam­ages out­weighs the $5 mil­lion cost of the 1926 flood or the $50,000 cost of the 1882 flood. The recent flood caused more prop­erty dam­age and greater loss of life than the pre­vi­ous big floods, but Nashville’s response to these dis­as­ters keeps get­ting better.

This month proved that cit­i­zens’ aid and com­pas­sion to their city, friends, neigh­bors and strangers has never been bet­ter. Nashville does take care of its own.

Where Are The Law Students And The History Majors?

Photo below shows page one of the original hand written Charter of incorporation for Tennessee’s first operating railroad, The Nashville Chattanooga Railroad ( later known as the Nashville Chattanooga & St Louis Railway). The charter was signed by Speaker of the House of Representatives, Campbell,and Speaker of the Senate, Watterson on December 11 1845, and is one of thousands of historic and original documents housed inside the Tennessee State Library and Archives.

Visiting the Tennessee State Library and Archives is my favorite past time. I am in awe of the number of original documents, photographs, maps, and manuscripts that are available for me to review and study. I also appreciate how familiar the librarians and archivists are with Tennessee’s stored historic materials and how willing they are to help patrons like me locate and access rare and scholarly resources.

Nashville is home to two law schools and at least seven colleges and universities so I often wonder why I seldom encounter a law or college student during my frequent visits to the State Library and Archives. Shouldn’t law students have a desire to understand the circumstances surrounding the establishment ( and in some cases the dis-establishment) of our state’s laws? Don’t college students have research papers to write? Are they unaware of the tremendous number of resources available to them at the State Library and Archives? Are they solely relying on secondary information quickly gleaned from the Internet? Do they know how intellectually satisfying it is to discover an un-cited historical fact? Why aren’t their instructors and professors “encouraging” them to dig deeper into their subjects?

With so many documents and manuscripts available at the Tennessee State Library and Archives I encourage any Nashville student who has a research paper or project due this semester to utilize TSLA resources. I am confident that with a little digging most students will discover original documents relating to their assigned topic and that by reviewing those documents they will develop a fresh and unique view of their subject.

The Tennsee State Library and Archives is located in Nashville at 403 7th Avenue North.

Union Dress Parade, March 4, 1862, Nashville Tennessee

Engraved print depicting the first Union dress parade (51st Regiment Ohio Volunteers) on the Public Square in Nashville under the command of Colonel Stanly Matthews on Tuesday, March 4th, 1862.
Courtesy Tennessee State Library And Archives

In 1861 Colonel Stanly Matthews was the Union provost marshal of Nashville. He later became s brigade commander at the Battles of Lookout Mountain and Chickamauga.

In 1881 Stanley Matthews was confirmed to the United States Supreme Court, where he sat until 1888.

Surprising fact regarding Nashville Civil Rights Movement revealed to Pat Nolan on "Inside Politics"

My guests on INSIDE POLITICS are three of Nashville’s lunch counter sit-in protestors now being honored for their courageous acts of 50 years ago. Watch at 5AM Sunday on WTVF as well as on NewsChannel5 Plus, Comcast and Charter Cable channels 250 at 7PM Friday, 5AM & 5:30 PM Saturday, 5AM and 12:30 PM Sunday.”

“One surprise: the famous and climatic confrontation with Mayor Ben West: He may have known what questions were coming.”

Pat Nolan

Black History Month Resources Available at Tennessee State Library and Archives


Unidentified Woman In A House Located On Kensington Street
Nashville Tennessee, 1918
Courtesy Tennessee State Library And Archives

In celebration of Black History Month, the Tennessee State Library and Archives (TSLA) is highlighting two collections relating to the state’s African-American history that have been added within the last year.

Last fall, TSLA added a collection called Guide to African-American Genealogy-Related Documents Prior to 1865, which includes a large selection of Supreme Court cases, state acts from 1796 through 1850, legislative petitions from 1799 to 1861, church records, correspondence, diaries, memoirs and other documents.

TSLA also added a new collection, Reconstruction and the African-American Legacy in Tennessee, to the Tennessee Virtual Archive (TeVA) within the last year. That collection, which includes photographs, scrapbooks and other images, can be found on the web at: http://teva.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm4/reconstruction.php

“We are very fortunate to have a wide selection of resources about African-American history at the State Library and Archives,” said Secretary of State Tre Hargett. “These resources are available and intended for use by Tennesseans year-round. However, due to the heightened interest of researchers during Black History Month, we want to call attention to some of the newer materials we have available. Researchers may also find many of our older collections of interest, including This Honorable Body, which recounts the story of 14 African-American legislators, many of them former slaves, who served in the Tennessee General Assembly between 1873 and 1889.”

TSLA also added a new collection, Reconstruction and the African-American Legacy in Tennessee, to the Tennessee Virtual Archive (TeVA) within the last year. That collection, which includes photographs, scrapbooks and other images, can be found on the web at: <a href="http://teva.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm4/reconstruction.php
“>http://teva.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm4/reconstruction.php

General Andrew Jackson Defeated British Forces In New Orleans On January 8, 1815


1928 program cover with scene from the Battle of New Orleans,
Captioned, January 8, 1815, “The Americans under the leadership of General Andrew Jackson defeated the British Army of twice his own force.”

With the commanders of American and British troops unaware of the peace treaty that was signed in *Ghent, on December 24, 1814, the final major battle of the War of 1812 took place in New Orleans Louisiana on January 8th 1815. American forces, under the leadership of General Andrew Jackson defeated the British Army, preventing them from invading America’s western territories.

News of the peace treaty reached New Orleans in February 1815.
*In 1815 Ghent was located in The Netherlands, today it is located in Belgium.

Treaty of Peace and Amity between His Britannic Majesty and the United States of America.

His Britannic Majesty and the United States of America desirous of terminating the war which has unhappily subsisted between the two Countries, and of restoring upon principles of perfect reciprocity, Peace, Friendship, and good Understanding between them, have for that purpose appointed their respective Plenipotentiaries, that is to say, His Britannic Majesty on His part has appointed the Right Honourable James Lord Gambier, late Admiral of the White now Admiral of the Red Squadron of His Majesty’s Fleet; Henry Goulburn Esquire, a Member of the Imperial Parliament and Under Secretary of State; and William Adams Esquire, Doctor of Civil Laws: And the President of the United States, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate thereof, has appointed John Quincy Adams, James A. Bayard, Henry Clay, Jonathan Russell, and Albert Gallatin, Citizens of the United States; who, after a reciprocal communication of their respective Full Powers, have agreed upon the following Articles.

ARTICLE THE FIRST.
There shall be a firm and universal Peace between His Britannic Majesty and the United States, and between their respective Countries, Territories, Cities, Towns, and People of every degree without exception of places or persons. All hostilities both by sea and land shall cease as soon as this Treaty shall have been ratified by both parties as hereinafter mentioned. All territory, places, and possessions whatsoever taken by either party from the other during the war, or which may be taken after the signing of this Treaty, excepting only the Islands hereinafter mentioned, shall be restored without delay and without causing any destruction or carrying away any of the Artillery or other public property originally captured in the said forts or places, and which shall remain therein upon the Exchange of the Ratifications of this Treaty, or any Slaves or other private property; And all Archives, Records, Deeds, and Papers, either of a public nature or belonging to private persons, which in the course of the war may have fallen into the hands of the Officers of either party, shall be, as far as may be practicable, forthwith restored and delivered to the proper authorities and persons to whom they respectively belong. Such of the Islands in the Bay of Passamaquoddy as are claimed by both parties shall remain in the possession of the party in whose occupation they may be at the time of the Exchange of the Ratifications of this Treaty until the decision respecting the title to the said Islands shall have been made in conformity with the fourth Article of this Treaty. No disposition made by this Treaty as to such possession of the Islands and territories claimed by both parties shall in any manner whatever be construed to affect the right of either.

ARTICLE THE SECOND.
Immediately after the ratifications of this Treaty by both parties as hereinafter mentioned, orders shall be sent to the Armies, Squadrons, Officers, Subjects, and Citizens of the two Powers to cease from all hostilities: and to prevent all causes of complaint which might arise on account of the prizes which may be taken at sea after the said Ratifications of this Treaty, it is reciprocally agreed that all vessels and effects which may be taken after the space of twelve days from the said Ratifications upon all parts of the Coast of North America from the Latitude of twenty three degrees North to the Latitude of fifty degrees North, and as far Eastward in the Atlantic Ocean as the thirty sixth degree of West Longitude from the Meridian of Greenwich, shall be restored on each side:-that the time shall be thirty days in all other parts of the Atlantic Ocean North of the Equinoctial Line or Equator:-and the same time for the British and Irish Channels, for the Gulf of Mexico, and all parts of the West Indies:-forty days for the North Seas for the Baltic, and for all parts of the Mediterranean-sixty days for the Atlantic Ocean South of the Equator as far as the Latitude of the Cape of Good Hope.- ninety days for every other part of the world South of the Equator, and one hundred and twenty days for all other parts of the world without exception.

ARTICLE THE THIRD.
All Prisoners of war taken on either side as well by land as by sea shall be restored as soon as practicable after the Ratifications of this Treaty as hereinafter mentioned on their paying the debts which they may have contracted during their captivity. The two Contracting Parties respectively engage to discharge in specie the advances which may have been made by the other for the sustenance and maintenance of such prisoners.

ARTICLE THE FOURTH.
Whereas it was stipulated by the second Article in the Treaty of Peace of one thousand seven hundred and eighty three between His Britannic Majesty and the United States of America that the boundary of the United States should comprehend “all Islands within twenty leagues of any part of the shores of the United States and lying between lines to be drawn due East from the points where the aforesaid boundaries between Nova Scotia on the one part and East Florida on the other shall respectively touch the Bay of Fundy and the Atlantic Ocean, excepting such Islands as now are or heretofore have been within the limits of Nova Scotia, and whereas the several Islands in the Bay of Passamaquoddy, which is part of the Bay of Fundy, and the Island of Grand Menan in the said Bay of Fundy, are claimed by the United States as being comprehended within their aforesaid boundaries, which said Islands are claimed as belonging to His Britannic Majesty as having been at the time of and previous to the aforesaid Treaty of one thousand seven hundred and eighty three within the limits of the Province of Nova Scotia: In order therefore finally to decide upon these claims it is agreed that they shall be referred to two Commissioners to be appointed in the following manner: viz: One Commissioner shall be appointed by His Britannic Majesty and one by the President of the United States, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate thereof, and the said two Commissioners so appointed shall be sworn impartially to examine and decide upon the said claims according to such evidence as shall be laid before them on the part of His Britannic Majesty and of the United States respectively. The said Commissioners shall meet at St Andrews in the Province of New Brunswick, and shall have power to adjourn to such other place or places as they shall think fit. The said Commissioners shall by a declaration or report under their hands and seals decide to which of the two Contracting parties the several Islands aforesaid do respectely belong in conformity with the true intent of the said Treaty of Peace of one thousand seven hundred and eighty three. And if the said Commissioners shall agree in their decision both parties shall consider such decision as final and conclusive. It is further agreed that in the event of the two Commissioners differing upon all or any of the matters so referred to them, or in the event of both or either of the said Commissioners refusing or declining or wilfully omitting to act as such, they shall make jointly or separately a report or reports as well to the Government of His Britannic Majesty as to that of the United States, stating in detail the points on which they differ, and the grounds upon which their respective opinions have been formed, or the grounds upon which they or either of them have so refused declined or omitted to act. And His Britannic Majesty and the Government of the United States hereby agree to refer the report or reports of the said Commissioners to some friendly Sovereign or State to be then named for that purpose, and who shall be requested to decide on the differences which may be stated in the said report or reports, or upon the report of one Commissioner together with the grounds upon which the other Commissioner shall have refused, declined or omitted to act as the case may be. And if the Commissioner so refusing, declining, or omitting to act, shall also wilfully omit to state the grounds upon which he has so done in such manner that the said statement may be referred to such friendly Sovereign or State together with the report of such other Commissioner, then such Sovereign or State shall decide ex parse upon the said report alone. And His Britannic Majesty and the Government of the United States engage to consider the decision of such friendly Sovereign or State to be final and conclusive on all the matters so referred.

ARTICLE THE FIFTH.
Whereas neither that point of the Highlands lying due North from the source of the River St Croix, and designated in the former Treaty of Peace between the two Powers as the North West Angle of Nova Scotia, nor the North Westernmost head of Connecticut River has yet been ascertained; and whereas that part of the boundary line between the Dominions of the two Powers which extends from the source of the River st Croix directly North to the above mentioned North West Angle of Nova Scotia, thence along the said Highlands which divide those Rivers that empty themselves into the River St Lawrence from those which fall into the Atlantic Ocean to the North Westernmost head of Connecticut River, thence down along the middle of that River to the forty fifth degree of North Latitude, thence by a line due West on said latitude until it strikes the River Iroquois or Cataraquy, has not yet been surveyed: it is agreed that for these several purposes two Commissioners shall be appointed, sworn, and authorized to act exactly in the manner directed with respect to those mentioned in the next preceding Article unless otherwise specified in the present Article. The said Commissioners shall meet at se Andrews in the Province of New Brunswick, and shall have power to adjourn to such other place or places as they shall think fit. The said Commissioners shall have power to ascertain and determine the points above mentioned in conformity with the provisions of the said Treaty of Peace of one thousand seven hundred and eighty three, and shall cause the boundary aforesaid from the source of the River St Croix to the River Iroquois or Cataraquy to be surveyed and marked according to the said provisions. The said Commissioners shall make a map of the said boundary, and annex to it a declaration under their hands and seals certifying it to be the true Map of the said boundary, and particularizing the latitude and longitude of the North West Angle of Nova Scotia, of the North Westernmost head of Connecticut River, and of such other points of the said boundary as they may deem proper. And both parties agree to consider such map and declaration as finally and conclusively fixing the said boundary. And in the event of the said two Commissioners differing, or both, or either of them refusing, declining, or wilfully omitting to act, such reports, declarations, or statements shall be made by them or either of them, and such reference to a friendly Sovereign or State shall be made in all respects as in the latter part of the fourth Article is contained, and in as full a manner as if the same was herein repeated.

ARTICLE THE SIXTH.
Whereas by the former Treaty of Peace that portion of the boundary of the United States from the point where the fortyfifth degree of North Latitude strikes the River Iroquois or Cataraquy to the Lake Superior was declared to be “along the middle of said River into Lake Ontario, through the middle of said Lake until it strikes the communication by water between that Lake and Lake Erie, thence along the middle of said communication into Lake Erie, through the middle of said Lake until it arrives at the water communication into the Lake Huron; thence through the middle of said Lake to the water communication between that Lake and Lake Superior:” and whereas doubts have arisen what was the middle of the said River, Lakes, and water communications, and whether certain Islands lying in the same were within the Dominions of His Britannic Majesty or of the United States: In order therefore finally to decide these doubts, they shall be referred to two Commissioners to be appointed, sworn, and authorized to act exactly in the manner directed with respect to those mentioned in the next preceding Article unless otherwise specified in this present Article. The said Commissioners shall meet in the first instance at Albany in the State of New York, and shall have power to adjourn to such other place or places as they shall think fit. The said Commissioners shall by a Report or Declaration under their hands and seals, designate the boundary through the said River, Lakes, and water communications, and decide to which of the two Contracting parties the several Islands lying within the said Rivers, Lakes, and water communications, do respectively belong in conformity with the true intent of the said Treaty of one thousand seven hundred and eighty three. And both parties agree to consider such designation and decision as final and conclusive. And in the event of the said two Commissioners differing or both or either of them refusing, declining, or wilfully omitting to act, such reports, declarations, or statements shall be made by them or either of them, and such reference to a friendly Sovereign or State shall be made in all respects as in the latter part of the fourth Article is contained, and in as full a manner as if the same was herein repeated.

ARTICLE THE SEVENTH.
It is further agreed that the said two last mentioned Commissioners after they shall have executed the duties assigned to them in the preceding Article, shall be, and they are hereby, authorized upon their oaths impartially to fix and determine according to the true intent of the said Treaty of Peace of one thousand seven hundred and eighty three, that part of the boundary between the dominions of the two Powers, which extends from the water communication between Lake Huron and Lake Superior to the most North Western point of the Lake of the Woods;-to decide to which of the two Parties the several Islands lying in the Lakes, water communications, and Rivers forming the said boundary do respectively belong in conformity with the true intent of the said Treaty of Peace of one thousand seven hundred and eighty three, and to cause such parts of the said boundary as require it to be surveyed and marked. The said Commissioners shall by a Report or declaration under their hands and seals, designate the boundary aforesaid, state their decision on the points thus referred to them, and particularize the Latitude and Longitude of the most North Western point of the Lake of the Woods, and of such other parts of the said boundary as they may deem proper. And both parties agree to consider such designation and decision as final and conclusive. And in the event of the said two Commissioners differing, or both or either of them refusing, declining, or wilfully omitting to act, such reports, declarations or statements shall be made by them or either of them, and such reference to a friendly Sovereign or State shall be made in all respects as in the latter part of the fourth Article is contained, and in as full a manner as if the same was herein revealed. ARTICLE THE EIGHTH. The several Boards of two Commissioners mentioned in the four preceding Articles shall respectively have power to appoint a Secretary, and to employ such Surveyors or other persons as they shall judge necessary. Duplicates of all their respective reports, declarations, statements, and decisions, and of their accounts, and of the Journal of their proceedings shall be delivered by them to the Agents of His Britannic Majesty and to the Agents of the United States, who may be respectively appointed and authorized to manage the business on behalf of their respective Governments. The said Commissioners shall be respectively paid in such manner as shall be agreed between the two contracting parties, such agreement being to be settled at the time of the Exchange of the Ratifications of this Treaty. And all other expenses attending the said Commissions shall be defrayed equally by the two parties. And in the case of death, sickness, resignation, or necessary absence, the place of every such Commissioner respectively shall be supplied in the same manner as such Commissioner was first appointed; and the new Commissioner shall take the same oath or affirmation and do the same duties. It is further agreed between the two contracting parties that in case any of the Islands mentioned in any of the preceding Articles, which were in the possession of one of the parties prior to the commencement of the present war between the two Countries, should by the decision of any of the Boards of Commissioners aforesaid, or of the Sovereign or State so referred to, as in the four next preceding Articles contained, fall within the dominions of the other party, all grants of land made previous to the commencement of the war by the party having had such possession, shall be as valid as if such Island or Islands had by such decision or decisions been adjudged to be within the dominions of the party having had such possession.

ARTICLE THE NINTH.
The United States of America engage to put an end immediately after the Ratification of the present Treaty to hostilities with all the Tribes or Nations of Indians with whom they may be at war at the time of such Ratification, and forthwith to restore to such Tribes or Nations respectively all the possessions, rights, and privileges which they may have enjoyed or been entitled to in one thousand eight hundred and eleven previous to such hostilities. Provided always that such Tribes or Nations shall agree to desist from all hostilities against the United States of America, their Citizens, and Subjects upon the Ratification of the present Treaty being notified to such Tribes or Nations, and shall so desist accordingly. And His Britannic Majesty engages on his part to put an end immediately after the Ratification of the present Treaty to hostilities with all the Tribes or Nations of Indians with whom He may be at war at the time of such Ratification, and forthwith to restore to such Tribes or Nations respectively all the possessions, rights, and privileges, which they may have enjoyed or been entitled to in one thousand eight hundred and eleven previous to such hostilities. Provided always that such Tribes or Nations shall agree to desist from all hostilities against His Britannic Majesty and His Subjects upon the Ratification of the present Treaty being notified to such Tribes or Nations, and shall so desist accordingly.

ARTICLE THE TENTH.
Whereas the Traffic in Slaves is irreconcilable with the principles of humanity and Justice, and whereas both His Majesty and the United States are desirous of continuing their efforts to promote its entire abolition, it is hereby agreed that both the contracting parties shall use their best endeavours to accomplish so desirable an object.

ARTICLE THE ELEVENTH.
This Treaty when the same shall have been ratified on both sides without alteration by either of the contracting parties, and the Ratifications mutually exchanged, shall be binding on both parties, and the Ratifications shall be exchanged at Washington in the space of four months from this day or sooner if practicable. In faith whereof, We the respective Plenipotentiaries have signed this Treaty, and have hereunto affixed our Seals.

Done in triplicate at Ghent the twenty fourth day of December one thousand eight hundred and fourteen.

GAMBIER.
HENRY GOULBURN
WILLIAM ADAMS
JOHN QUINCY ADAMS
J. A. BAYARD
H. CLAY.
JON. RUSSELL
ALBERT GALLATIN